Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Short history of etymology of the word liberal: of Liber and Alis!

by M. Ulric Killion 

This masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix is called Liberty Leading the People, and portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. Since Liberty is part of the motto “Liberté égalité fraternité”, as the French put it, this painting became the primary symbol of the French Republic. 

The word liberal directly derives from its Latin source, which is the Latin word—liberalis, which means freedom or “relating to freedom.”  Its etymology is deduced by separating the Latin lexicon of liberalis, thus, there are two separable words of liber and alis. The derivatives are liber, libera, and liberum. More specifically, as for Liber, it has a Latin-adjective meaning of free, unrestricted, unrestrained, etc. As such, as an adjective, liber probably derives from the Latin verbs of libero, liberare, liberavi, or even liberatus, which also means to set free. 

Alternatively, Liber could be used as a substantive adjective within the context of the Latin language, thereby, essentially, meaning a freeman or freedom.  Consequently, in modern society, there are various word forms that we, at least English-speaking and perhaps even the Romance languages in general, employ with the word liber in them, and count as examples, lexicons such as liberty, liberation, and liberator.

In comparison, the original Latin expression of Alis, as an older Latin form of verbs, such as alius. Alius, alia, and aliud, is another adjective that generally means another, other, etc.  A linguistic evolution follows and, actually, transforms alius into the suffix “-al.”  Subsequently, “-al” employs as an attachment to the end of words, thus, changing other words into adjective forms; for example, economical, political. economical or political.  Another example of how the suffix “-al ” employs in modern society are those instances of alis as an abbreviation for “et al” or its equivalent “et alii”, both of which literally mean “and others.” 

In this print, published March 6, 1818, they are sneering at Napoleon Bonaparte following his retreat from Moscow and for betraying the ideals of the French Revolution. 

In other words, or more colloquially speaking, the early Romans would combine the two adjectives of liber and alis for forming one singular word and meaning, which is liberalis. With the passage of time, and the processes of both social and linguistic evolutions, there was a subsequent fusion of the Latin language into first, the domain of the Old French language (ancien français), and then later, what hails as Middle English, which, eventually, resulted in the last two letters of the lexicon, being “-is”, now being dumped from the lexicon of liberalis, and resulting in the word liberal. Moreover, liberalis in its original Latin context, literally, means another matter of freedom.

Moreover, and serving as a reminder of the powers of the spoken and written word, or simply, the language or linguistics of the social sciences, including law and political economy, and their respective lexicons, there are also the critical social and linguistic revolutions of the eighteenth century. The early eighteenth century, the Enlightenment, the French Enlightenment, France in the Age of Enlightenment (Siècle des Lumières, 1715-1792), or the controversial German equivalent of Aufklärung (Illuminism) (Schmidt, 2003), generally characterize developments in the sciences, especially the social sciences or the new sciences of society, or la science sociale (the social sciences) and sociologie (sociology). 

Both of these nomenclatures,  la science sociale and sociologie, are attributable to the contributions of the French utopian socialist Saint-Simon and Comte in founding the new social sciences, though a controversy as to who is actually due credit for naming the new science of society (F. A. v. Hayek, The Counter-Revolution of Science, 1941).

However, for the purposes of this short history, Siècle des Lumières also serves to represent a critical revolution, both social and linguistic, in the usage of the lexicon of liberal (French: liberté). This is because the lexicon of  liberal became a mainstay in the rhetoric and fervor of France in the Age of Enlightenment. In terms of the rules of nomenclature for pre-revolutionary France, the lexicon of liberal (liberté), whether in the context of the political, political economy or legal environment, would change the rhetoric of the revolution.

The “then” neologism of liberty or, perhaps more accurately, liberté, ultimately, served as a force of influence on both the French Revolution (1789-1799) and American Revolution (1763-1776), which, as a reflection of the new ideas, rhetoric, and language of the revolution employed by the new ideologues, eventually, shook the world (Kirby et al., 2000). 
Copyright © Protected - All Rights Reserved M. Ulric Killion, 2009.

Monday, November 8, 2010

Post-global financial crisis: The measure of the “Beijing consensus” as a variety of capitalisms


Munich Personal RePEc Archive


Killion, M. Ulric (2010): Post-global financial crisis: The measure of the “Beijing consensus” as a variety of capitalisms. Unpublished.



PDF - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader


In order to explore the prospective effects of what hails as the Beijing consensus, a conceptualization arguably near-synonymous with Beijing’s export-oriented strategy, the Article first discusses the state of the Chinese economy in the post-global financial crisis era. After reviewing some key indicators of the country’s economy, the Article presents a comparison between a Washington and Beijing consensus, contrasting ideological meanings between these two consensuses, and then explores the measure of the Beijing consensus as a variety of capitalisms. By doing so the Article reveals the broader role of Beijing’s export-oriented strategy and its eventual relation to international capital’s industrial transformation and the prospective effects of a Beijing consensus. The Article concludes by presenting a prospectus of the Beijing consensus as a variety of capitalisms in the post-global financial crisis era. By presenting the Beijing consensus or even export-oriented strategy as an evolving model in this new era, China’s trade and finance models prospectively present a distinctive modeling of capitalism and its tools of trade and finance models.

Item Type:
MPRA Paper


China; economy; export; capitalist; socialist; transformation

F - International Economics > F0 - General > F00 - General
P - Economic Systems > P0 - General > P00 - General
F - International Economics > F1 - Trade > F10 - General
Z - Other Special Topics > Z0 - General > Z00 - General

ID Code:

Deposited By:
M. Ulric Killion

Deposited On:
06. Nov 2010 12:45

Last Modified:
06. Nov 2010 12:45


Albert, M, 1998, Capitalisme contre capitalisme, [Capitalism against Capitalism], Seuil.

Bevilacqua, D. and J. Duncan, 2010, “Towards a New Cosmopolitanism: Global Reflexive Interactive Democracy as a New Mechanism for Civil Society Participation in Agri-food Governance,” Global Jurist: Vol. 10: Iss. 1 (Advances), Article 2; Available at: http://www.bepress.com/gj/vol10/iss1/art2.

Bradford, Jr., C. I. and J. F. Linn, 2009, September, “Is the G-20 Summit a Step Toward a New Global Economic Order?,” Brookings Institution, Policy Brief #170.

U.S. Secretary of Energy to Deliver Keynote Address at CERAWeek 2010, 2010, February 5, [Electronic version], CERA: News: Press Release.

Cha, A. E., 2006, April 23, The Beijing Consensus, Washington Post.

Chen, J., and Li Y., Eds., 2009, 2010 Economy of China Analysis and Forecast, [2010 Nian Zhongguo Jingji Xingshi Fenxi Yu Yuce], Social Sciences Academic Press.

China’s 8% economic growth goal achievable: economist, 2009, December 6, Xinhua News.

Coates, D., 2002, Models of Capitalism: Debating Strengths and Weaknesses, Edward Elgar Publishing, ix.

Cole, C. W., 1965, French mercantilism: 1683-1700, Octagon Books.

Deeg, R., and G. Jackson, 2007, “The State of the Art - Towards a more dynamic theory of capitalist variety,” Socio-Economic Review, Vol. 5, 149–179.

_____, and _____, 2006, “How Many Varieties of Capitalism? Comparing the Comparative Institutional Analyses of Capitalist Diversity,” Discussion Paper 06/2, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gesellschaftsforschung.

Ding, Q., 2009, December 24, Outlook for Chinese exports still grim, China Daily.

Dittrick, P., 2010, March 9, “CERAWeek: Asia to dominate growing energy demand,” Oil & Gas Journal.

Dore, R., W. Lazonick and M. O’Sullivan, 1999, “Varieties of capitalism in the twentieth century,” Vol. 15 Oxford Review of Economic Policy.

Faison, S., 2009, December 20, Book review: ‘When China Rules the World’ by Martin Jacques, Washington Post.

Gipouloux, F., 1998, May-June, “Integration or Disintegration? The Spatial Effects of Foreign Direct Investment in China,” China Perspectives, 6.

Hall, P. A., and D. Soskice, (Eds.), 2001, Varieties of Capitalism – The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, Oxford University Press.

Hao, Y., 2009, December 8, China’s foreign trade to recover in 2010, China Daily.

He, F., 2009, December 21, Economy needs some tweaking, China Daily.

Hu, Y., 2010, May 19, Urbanization to bolster GDP growth, China Daily.

Jacques, M., 2009, When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Birth of a New Global Order, Penguin Press.

John Williamson Conversation, 2009, April 12, Washington Post.

Killion, U., 2009, “Post-Subprime Crisis: China Banking and GATS Liberalization,” Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, Vol. 4 (2), 13-26.

_____, 2008, “Regional Economic Integration – The Chinese Way,” The Analyst-Finance Magazine: Global Economy Special Issue (Aug.), 57-59.

_____, 2007, Modern Chinese Rules of Order: Paradox of Law and Economics, Nova Science Publishers, 83-86.

_____, 2006, A Modern Chinese Journey to the West: Economic Globalization and Dualism, Nova Science Publishers, 2.

Kleinbach, R., 1999, May 30, (Presentation), Sustainable Development and Neo-Liberalism, Conference, American Univ. (Kyrgyzstan), Last accessed 28 June 2010; http://faculty.philau.edu/kleinbachr/neo-liberalism.htm.

Lewis, G., 1994, “Proto-Industrialization in France,” The Economic History Review, Vol. 47, No. 1 (Feb.), 150-164.

_____, 1993, The Advent of Modern Capitalism in France, 1770–1840: The Contribution of Pierre-François Tubeuf, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Meng, J., 2008, “The hypothesis of economic man and Marxist economics,” Zhongguo Shehui Kexue [Soc. Sci. China], Vol. XXIV, No. 1 (Feb.), 5-15.

Pei, C., 2009a, December 8, China’s foreign trade to recover in 2010, China Daily.

_____, and L. Peng, 2009b, “Reform and opening up in the area of circulation: a retrospect,” Zhongguo Shehui Kexue [Soc. Sci. China], Vol. XXX, No. 1 (Feb.), 36-53.

Prebisch, R., 1950, The Economic Development of Latin America and Its Principal Problems, New York: United Nations.

Privateer, P. M., 2006, Inventing Intelligence: A Social History of Smart, Wiley-Blackwell, 129.

Qiang, X., 2009, December 8, Blue Book: China’s GDP to rise slowly, China Daily.

Ramo, J. C., 2004, May, “The Beijing consensus: Notes on the New Physics of Chinese Power,” The Foreign Policy Centre, UK.

Rein, S., 2009, September 15, The New Post-Lehman Capitalist World, Forbes.

Ru, X., X. Lu, and P. Li, (Eds.), 2009, 2010 Society of China Analysis and Forecast, [2010 Nian Zhongguo Shehui Singshi Fenxi Yu Yuce], Social Sciences Academic Press.

Senior officials and scholars challenge “China Model”, 2009, December 10, China Daily.

Shambaugh, D., 2010, March 1, Is there a China Model?, China Daily.

Si, T., 2009, December 21, China’s economy grew by 9.6% last year, China Daily.

Strauss-Kahn, D., 2009, October 2, (Speech), Making the Most of an Historic Opportunity: Three Principles for Reshaping the Global Economic and Financial Framework, Speech, Istanbul, Çırağan Palace, Last accessed June 8, 2010; http://www.imf.org/external/np/speeches/2009/100209.htm.

Summers, D., 2009, January 29, Financial crisis: Gordon Brown calls for new global order, Guardian News.

The Economist, 2010, May 6, The China Model - The Beijing consensus is to keep quiet, London: Economist Newspaper Ltd.

Tronche, J. L., 2010, March 8, CERA Week 2010: Collaboration will help solve global energy problems, Fort Worth Business Press Last accessed April 15, 2010; http://www.fwbusinesspress.com/display.php?id=12125.

Walker, T., 2010, March 4, China lets its cash speak in the Balkans, Deutsche Welle, Last accessed June 22, 2010; http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,5315134,00.html.

Woo, W. T., 2003, “A United Front for the Common Objective to Understand China’s Economic Growth: A Case of Nonantagonistic Contradiction, Wu vs. Woo,” Issues & Studies 39, No. 2 (June), 1-23.

WSJ, China blasted for “opportunistic” African loans, 2006, October 2, China Reform Monitor No. 641.

WTO, Trade Policy Review: China, 2010, May 31, PRESS RELEASE: PRESS/TPRB/330, Last accessed June 24, 2010; http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp330_e.htm.

Yan, P., 2009, December 8, Gov’t think tank: China’s economic growth to exceed 9% in 2010, China.org.cn, Last accessed May 14. 2010; http://www.china.org.cn/business/2009-12/08/content_19029221.htm.

Yuan, Z., 2009, “Dialogue, Interaction and New Developments in Philosophy in Contemporary China – Specialist Forum on Chinese, Western and Marxist Philosophies,” Zhongguo Shehui Kexue [Soc. Sci. China], Vol. 30, No. 3 (Aug.), 151-62.

Zhang, J., 2002, “Capital Formation, Industrialization and Economic Growth: Characteristics of China Structural Reform,” Jinji yanjiu [Economic Research], No. 6.


MPRA is a RePEc service hosted by
Munich University Library in Germany.